I don't pretend to be all that knowledgeable about camera settings. I'm guilty of forgetting the terminology shortly after learning it. I do know that if my little dial in the viewfinder is too far to the right, the shot is either going to be blown out (that is to say, the whites will lack detail, which is fine if you're going for a high key shot), or the shutter will be too slow in low light.
How's that for advice?
But I can offer you one of the first things I learned many, many years ago shooting film. *clears throat* And that's the "sunny 16" rule. If it's a sunny day, set your f-stop to 16. (Chances were good my film was ISO 100 in those days unless I had some high-speed or low light project up my sleeve.) The top shot here follows the sunny 16 rule.
Now, here's why I don't use it much...although this a nice enough shot, it appears a bit flat to me. Everything is in focus. Not something your natural eye does. I tend to prefer a shallow depth of field. The next two images are f/5.6 where I focused in on the tobacco and wheat in the foreground.
All this is subjective, of course. Lots to factor in. If you're like me and enjoy a good shallow DoF, rent the movie Citizen Kane and watch it from a photographer's perspective. I watched it for a film class last year for the first time in 15-20 years. The cinematography really is ground-breaking.
I better stop now 'cuz this subject has gone from A to B to C, and I could easily chat my way to Z....but you'd stop reading at G.
Hell, you probably stopped at B...
* * * * * * * * * *